The major goal of postdoctoral training is to enhance research skills at all levels; therefore, the vast majority of these individuals’ time is spent in research and research-related activity. Postdoctoral associates within the department are supported by a variety of sources, including a component for mentor research grants, NIH funded training grants, and NIH or foundation specific grants to support postdoctoral training. Occasionally, postdoctoral associates are supported for limited periods by institutional resources. Postdoctoral associates in the department are expected to contribute to journal clubs and present in seminar programs; additionally, opportunities are available for them to participate in the departmental teaching mission, including lectures and small group discussions. All postdoctoral associates are encouraged to audit courses that may be related to their research or ones in which that they may have a special interest. Advanced postdoctoral associates may be considered for research faculty status in the department. This provides the opportunity for these individuals to apply for independent research funding and to begin establishing an independent research program. Enhanced participation in the other academic missions is also expected.